**ESOL Strategies**

**From**

Try “Numbered Heads”

__www.lincolnparkboe.org.schools.bz__Try “Numbered Heads”

**- In Concept**

Numbered Heads is a structured strategy that promotes student participation by allowing small groups of students to discuss possible responses before one group member is selected to answer. It is a strategy that offers extra linguistic support for ELLs and reinforces conceptual understanding for all students. It promotes student participation by building self-confidence and also increases student-student interaction. It is a source of authentic language input for language learners. Best of all, perhaps, students like it because it feels like a game.

**In Practice**

Students sit in groups of four. Each student has a designated number, one through four, decided by the members of each group. After each question, the teacher gives the groups a brief period, from 20 seconds to 2 minutes, depending on the complexity of the question, to discuss their answers. When time is up, the teacher calls out a number – number three, for example. All the students designated number three raise their hands. The teacher chooses one number-three student to answer the question and continues calling on other number threes until enough information has been given. This procedure is repeated with each question.

A randomized process for choosing numbers works best here. Teachers can make a spinner with four quadrants, use numbered popsicle sticks or balls, or put numbered slips of paper in a box or paper bag. Psychologically, random drawings make students feel that no one number is being favored, neglected, or picked on. Even better, random drawings keep all students focused and on task for every question by removing the possibility that they won’t be called on two or more times in a row.

Sentence FramesThanks to Kathy O'Hara-Rosa from Hollydale Elementary Using Sentence Frames in the ESOL Classroom from K12Chalkbox.com http://www.k5chalkbox.com/how-to-use-sentence-frames.html Using Sentence Frames to Jumpstart Writing from the Teaching Channel www.teachingchannel.org/videos/jumpstart-student-writingPicture from Pinteresthttps://i.pinimg.com/736x/25/a0/24/25a0241a703e964e73883ae862738386.jpg |

**Technology and Newcomers**

(Taken from ESOL Odyssey

__http://esolodyssey__)

See http://esolodyssey.learningwithlaurahj.org/2017/09/newcomer-ells-and-computer-time.html

Here are some major differences between acquiring your first (native) language, and acquiring a second (or additional) language that need to be taken into consideration when choosing appropriate learning tools- including technology tools:

-In second language acquisition, knowledge of the first language also serves as a basis for learning the second language.

-In first language acquisition, children spend several years listening to language, babbling, and using telegraphic speech before they can form sentences. Second language learners do not have this opportunity, and need opportunities to use the language with peers.

-Older learners are able to use more metacognitive processes in their learning. They can consciously analyze and manipulate grammatical structures, sound patterns. They can also analyze how language works. Older ELLs need opportunities to analyze and manipulate language and grammar.

-Older learners bring more life experience and background knowledge to their learning. They have more schemata and more learning strategies to help them learn the second language. Learning activities should tap into this background knowledge and schema.

-In older learners, there may be less sensitivity to phonological distinctions not present in the native language. Older ELLs may also have fewer opportunities to learn and use language authentically. These factors may reduce the likelihood that second language learners will attain native-like proficiency.

-In first language acquisition, learners have many chances to practice with native speakers (especially caregivers). In second language acquisition, teachers must provide learners with the opportunity to practice extensively with native speakers.

-Almost everyone acquires a first language, but not everyone acquires a second language. Acquiring a first language happens naturally, while acquiring a second language often requires conscious effort on the part of the learner.

From Brighthub Education (

Let students touch objects related to their ESL math lessons whenever possible. Blocks, beans, counters and anything else students can hold in their hands can be powerful tools to help them master math concepts. Repeat numbers in English as the students count out the appropriate number of counters for an addition or subtraction problem. For example, use beans to show that Anna has six (6) cookies and Mark has nine (9) in an addition story problem.

Write key phrases students will encounter on a daily basis in math on a large poster. Put these phrases up on the wall in the classroom in a prominent place where students can refer to them. Phrases used often in word problems, order of operations, geometry or algebra terms, for example, can all be put up on the poster. These can help students identify what types of problems they are working with and how to solve them. Add visuals when possible.

Have students practice speaking in English by working in partners or in small groups as they practice how to do a particular type of math problem. Encourage them to use math phrases as much as possible as they explain the process aloud. Ask students to repeat a problem or process back to you after you explain it. Ask questions about the problem or the lesson to ensure all of the students understand what you have taught.

Rewrite word problems using fewer and easier words so that your ESL students can practice both their math and language skills without being stuck on what a particular phrase or word means as they read the problem. Keep the

sentences short and to the point.

Apply mathematical concepts you are teaching to the real world for the students. Make the lessons pertain to an experience outside the classroom to which the students can relate.

__http://www.brighthubeducation.com/esl-lesson-plans/90592-strategies-for-teaching-math/__)*Use these tips to create ESL math lessons that will help your students understand not only the lesson, but also the English math vocabulary in them. Students will better be able to understand your lessons when you adapt them to meet their needs.*

**Manipulatives**Let students touch objects related to their ESL math lessons whenever possible. Blocks, beans, counters and anything else students can hold in their hands can be powerful tools to help them master math concepts. Repeat numbers in English as the students count out the appropriate number of counters for an addition or subtraction problem. For example, use beans to show that Anna has six (6) cookies and Mark has nine (9) in an addition story problem.

One idea, suggested by the Center for Applied Linguistics, is “[w]hen working on estimation of lengths,. . .students can use both standard and metric measuring tools to find things that measure approximately one centimeter, one decimeter, one meter, one inch, one foot, or one yard. They can then use these items to estimate the length of other objects in the classroom, check their estimates with the actual tools, and use calculators to find the percentage of error in their estimations."

One idea, suggested by the Center for Applied Linguistics, is “[w]hen working on estimation of lengths,. . .students can use both standard and metric measuring tools to find things that measure approximately one centimeter, one decimeter, one meter, one inch, one foot, or one yard. They can then use these items to estimate the length of other objects in the classroom, check their estimates with the actual tools, and use calculators to find the percentage of error in their estimations."

**Vocabulary Wall**Write key phrases students will encounter on a daily basis in math on a large poster. Put these phrases up on the wall in the classroom in a prominent place where students can refer to them. Phrases used often in word problems, order of operations, geometry or algebra terms, for example, can all be put up on the poster. These can help students identify what types of problems they are working with and how to solve them. Add visuals when possible.

Talk AloudTalk Aloud

Have students practice speaking in English by working in partners or in small groups as they practice how to do a particular type of math problem. Encourage them to use math phrases as much as possible as they explain the process aloud. Ask students to repeat a problem or process back to you after you explain it. Ask questions about the problem or the lesson to ensure all of the students understand what you have taught.

Modify Word ProblemsModify Word Problems

Rewrite word problems using fewer and easier words so that your ESL students can practice both their math and language skills without being stuck on what a particular phrase or word means as they read the problem. Keep the

sentences short and to the point.

*Take out extra detail that is not needed to convey the gist of the problem.*

Make it RealMake it Real

Apply mathematical concepts you are teaching to the real world for the students. Make the lessons pertain to an experience outside the classroom to which the students can relate.